In the tomato planting process, the management of flowering period is particularly important, which is related to the quality and yield of tomato fruits. This article mainly introduces how to manage the flowering period of tomatoes?
1.Flower differentiation process
The plant needs to accumulate the material needed for flower bud differentiation when the two cotyledons are unearthed after the seed has germinated. When the plant grows to about 3 cm and the two true leaves are unfolded, the top of the growth point begins to thicken and swell, and begins to differentiate to form the first flower spike .
At the same time, the axillary bud of the flower spike that gradually formed between the parietal leaf and the flower spike was a new growth point, and the leaves were redifferentiated until 1-3 leaves were differentiated to form a second flower spike. Generally, 1-3 spikes are differentiated on 2-7 true leaves, 4-6 spikes are differentiated on 8-11, and 7 or more flower spikes are differentiated on 12 leaves. Adjacent two flower buds in the same flower spike usually have a time interval of 2-3 days.
2. Factors affecting flower bud differentiation
The main factors leading to poor flower bud differentiation are concentrated in two aspects: too high or too low temperature and imbalanced nutrition, but also insufficient in light and water management.
(1) The temperature is too high. The temperature in the shed exceeds 30 ° C or higher, and some can even exceed 35 ° C. At this temperature, the tomato two or three spike flowers after the planting and the subsequent flowers are greatly affected by high temperature during differentiation, especially in nutrition and watering. Such as the improper management measures, the probability of problems is very high, and it is more prone to the phenomenon of flowers without fruits, unsettled fruits, dried flower organs, and fallen flowers.
(2) The temperature is too low. When the temperature is low, especially at night, it is easy to form deformed flowers. The reason is that the flower bud differentiation temperature is low, and the nutrient consumption for respiration is reduced, so that the nutrients transported to the flower buds in the leaves accumulate, and the flower buds are nourished. The material becomes thicker, which increases the number of ovary carpel primordium primordia. The over-development of the carpel causes the ovary to crack. On the other hand, the low temperature prevents the carpel from developing in a balanced manner. Compound flowers, which in turn develop into deformed fruit.
When the tomato seedlings are exposed to a low temperature of 6-8 ° C for more than 8 hours within 1 day, deformed fruits are prone to occur. In winter and spring tomato cultivation, in the northern cold regions, the night temperature is low. If not managed properly, it will easily form a long-term low temperature environment, resulting in poor flower bud differentiation of tomatoes.
(3) Nutritional imbalances. Poor differentiation of flower buds caused by nutrient deficiency is mainly due to lack of boron fertilizer, especially after soil salinization, excessive nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc. will inhibit the absorption and utilization of boron, and then affect the quality of flowers. And more often, the growth imbalance of plants, such as excessive growth, is the key factor leading to flower bud differentiation.
(4) Improper light and water management. On the one hand, some vegetable farmers are watered too frequently, which results in excessive soil moisture, poor root growth, and low absorption of mineral elements. On the other hand, some vegetable farmers control water excessively to prevent excessive growth, which leads to poor flower bud differentiation and flowers in the absence of water. Dry and flowering.
3. Nutrition plan to develop good flowers
Under the conditions of temperature, light, water and other measures, it is critical to meet the nutritional needs of flower bud differentiation. On the one hand, adequate organic and inorganic nutrients can make flower buds differentiate well, and on the other hand, certain nutrients have the ability to improve the plant's resistance to high temperature and drought.
(1) Supplement the total nutrient fertilizer before flowering. In general, the effective time of conventional fertilizers is about 7 days, and even if the fertilizer is flushed after the fruit is seated, the fertilizer does not work in a short period of time, so fertilization after seeing the flowers or seeing the fruits has little significance for flowers and fruits. Therefore, we recommend watering and fertilizing 3 days before flowering.
(2) Auxiliary spraying of boron calcium leaf fertilizer. If the selected water-soluble fertilizer contains boron and calcium and other nutrient elements, it can be used to meet the needs of flower bud differentiation, but when the soil environment is harsh, the boron and calcium element is often inhibited. Therefore, it is necessary to spray boron-calcium fertilizer before flowering. Be sure to do "boron before flowering, calcium after flowering."
(3) Focus on the application of functional fertilizers. Among the many functional products, the substances that help improve the plant's resistance to stress are concentrated in humic acid, urchin, chitin, beneficial elements, phosphites and composite organic substances. Among them are commonly used sea urchin, chitin and humic acid.
Zhengzhou Delong Chemical CO., Ltd. is the production base of plant growth regulators in China, which established in 2009, specializing in offering plant protection products. If you have any question, contact us any time.Back